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Cardiol Clin. 2001 Nov;19(4):583-96, viii.

Polypharmacy of heart failure. Creating a rational pharmacotherapeutic protocol.

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  • 1Department of Cardiology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, USA.


In the management of chronic heart failure, polypharmacy is common, necessary, and often overlooked. The increasing costs of care, noncompliance, and frequent adverse drug interactions have led to diminishing benefits by simply adding additional drugs to the already complex regimen. This review outlines a rational pharmacotherapeutic protocol based on establishing overall therapeutic goals and confirming treatment targets, tailoring therapy to individual patients by balancing beneficial and adverse drug effects, and paying particular attention to patient education and other nonpharmacologic support.

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