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Pharmacol Res. 2001 Nov;44(5):397-409.

The potential antidiabetic activity of some alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonists.

Author information

1
Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Assiut University, Assiut, Egypt.

Abstract

The effect of alpha-2 adrenoceptor antagonists, yohimbine and efaroxan, on the plasma glucose and insulin levels was studied in non-diabetic control, type-I (insulin-dependent) and type-II (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic rats. Pretreatment with either yohimbine or efaroxan potentiated glucose-induced insulin release in non-diabetic control rats and produced an improvement of the oral glucose tolerance and potentiated glucose-induced insulin release in type-II but not in type-I diabetic rats. Treatment with either yohimbine or efaroxan reduced the plasma glucose level and increased the plasma insulin level of non-diabetic control and type-II diabetic rats but not of type-I diabetic rats. Effects of efaroxan were more marked. Pretreatment of non-diabetic control and type-II diabetic rats with either yohimbine or efaroxan inhibited clonidine-induced hyperglycaemia and suppressed or reversed clonidine-induced hypoinsulinaemia. Also, pretreatment of these animals with either yohimbine or efaroxan enhanced the hypoglycaemic and insulinotropic effects of glibenclamide. The combination of glibenclamide and efaroxan led to a synergistic increase in insulin secretion, while that of glibenclamide and yohimbine led to an additive increase. The hyperglycaemic effect of diazoxide in non-diabetic control and type-II diabetic rats was inhibited by pretreatment with either yohimbine or efaroxan. The hypoinsulinaemic effect of diazoxide in these animals was antagonized and reversed by pretreatment with yohimbine and efaroxan, respectively. In type-I diabetic rats, there was no change in the plasma glucose and insulin levels induced by the treatment of animals with each of clonidine or diazoxide alone or in combination with either yohimbine or efaroxan. Glibenclamide produced a slight decrease in the plasma glucose level of type-I diabetic rats, at the end of the 120 min period of investigation but there was no change in the plasma insulin level. Pretreatment of these animals with either yohimbine or efaroxan produced no change in glibenclamide effects. Additionally, bath application of efaroxan or glibenclamide inhibited the relaxant effects of different concentrations of diazoxide on the isolated norepinephrine-contracted aortic strips, while the application of yohimbine produced insignificant changes. The combination of glibenclamide and efaroxan led to complete inhibition of the relaxant effects of different concentrations of diazoxide, while that of glibenclamide and yohimbine did not produce such an effect. It is concluded that yohimbine, via blockade of postsynaptic alpha-2 adrenoceptors, and efaroxan, via blockade of postsynaptic alpha-2 adrenoceptors and adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels in the pancreatic beta-cell membrane, produce insulinotropic and subsequent hypoglycaemic effects.

PMID:
11712871
DOI:
10.1006/phrs.2001.0870
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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