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Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2001 Dec;45(12):3544-7.

Target preference of 15 quinolones against Staphylococcus aureus, based on antibacterial activities and target inhibition.

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Discovery Research Laboratories, Kyorin Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., 2399-1, Nogi, Shimotsuga, Tochigi 329-0114, Japan.


The antibacterial activities and target inhibition of 15 quinolones against grlA and gyrA mutant strains were studied. The strains were obtained from wild-type Staphylococcus aureus MS5935 by selection with norfloxacin and nadifloxacin, respectively. The antibacterial activities of most quinolones against both mutant strains were lower than those against the wild-type strain. The ratios of MICs for the gyrA mutant strain to those for the grlA mutant strain (MIC ratio) varied from 0.125 to 4. The ratios of 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)s) of quinolones against topoisomerase IV to those against DNA gyrase (IC(50) ratios) also varied, from 0.177 to 5.52. A significant correlation between the MIC ratios and the IC(50) ratios was observed (r = 0.919; P < 0.001). These results suggest that the antibacterial activities of quinolones against the wild-type strain are involved not only in topoisomerase IV inhibition but also in DNA gyrase inhibition and that the target preference in the wild-type strain can be anticipated by the MIC ratios. Based on the MIC ratios, the quinolones were classified into three categories. Type I quinolones (norfloxacin, enoxacin, fleroxacin, ciprofloxacin, lomefloxacin, trovafloxacin, grepafloxacin, ofloxacin, and levofloxacin) had MIC ratios of <1, type II quinolones (sparfloxacin and nadifloxacin) had MIC ratios of >1, and type III quinolones (gatifloxacin, pazufloxacin, moxifloxacin, and clinafloxacin) had MIC ratios of 1. Type I and type II quinolones seem to prefer topoisomerase IV and DNA gyrase, respectively. Type III quinolones seem to target both enzymes at nearly the same level in bacterial cells (a phenomenon known as the dual-targeting property), and their IC(50) ratios were approximately 2.

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