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Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. 2001 Dec;281(6):R1844-53.

AT(1)-receptor blockade in the hypothalamic PVN reduces central hyperosmolality-induced renal sympathoexcitation.

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1
Department of Physiology, The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, 7703 Floyd Curl Drive, San Antonio, TX 78229-3900, USA.

Abstract

Autonomic neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) are innervated by osmotic-sensitive regions of the lamina terminalis, receive input from ANG II-containing cells, and express AT(1) ANG II receptors. Therefore, we hypothesized that ANG II actions within the PVN could underlie hyperosmolality-induced increases in renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA). In anesthetized baroreceptor-denervated rats, graded concentrations of NaCl (0.30, 0.9, 1.5, and 2.1 osmol/l) were injected (300 microl) centrally via the internal carotid artery (ICA) and produced corresponding increases in mean arterial pressure (MAP) and RSNA. In addition, equivalent hyperosmotic loads (1.5 osmol/l) of NaCl, glucose, and mannitol each significantly (P < 0.05) increased MAP and RSNA. The same stimuli had no effect when administered intravenously. Bilateral PVN microinjections (100 nl) of the AT(1)-receptor antagonist losartan (80 nmol) before osmotic challenge had no effect on resting RSNA but significantly (P < 0.05) reduced RSNA responses to hyperosmotic NaCl (n = 7), glucose (n = 6), and mannitol (n = 6). Increases in RSNA evoked by hyperosmotic NaCl were significantly (P < 0.05) attenuated approximately 20 min after losartan injection and recovered within 60-120 min. In contrast, losartan outside the PVN as well as vehicle (saline) within the PVN failed to alter RSNA responses to ICA hyperosmotic NaCl. Results suggest that elevated RSNA after central sodium/osmotic activation is mediated, at least in part, by a synaptic mechanism involving AT(1)-receptor activation within the PVN.

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