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J Clin Anesth. 2001 Nov;13(7):524-39.

Multimodal analgesia for postoperative pain control.

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Department of Anesthesia, Toronto Western Hospital, University Health Network, University of Toronto, 399 Bathurst Street, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.


Pain is one of the main postoperative adverse outcomes. Single analgesics, either opioid or nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), are not able to provide effective pain relief without side effects such as nausea, vomiting, sedation, or bleeding. A majority of double or single-blind studies investigating the use of NSAIDs and opioid analgesics with or without local anesthetic infiltration showed that patients experience lower pain scores, need fewer analgesics, and have a prolonged time to requiring analgesics after surgery. This review focuses on multimodal analgesia, which is currently recommended for effective postoperative pain control.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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