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Blood. 2001 Nov 15;98(10):2909-16.

HIV-1 gp120 and chemokine activation of Pyk2 and mitogen-activated protein kinases in primary macrophages mediated by calcium-dependent, pertussis toxin-insensitive chemokine receptor signaling.

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Department of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, USA.


Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) uses the chemokine receptors CCR5 and CXCR4 as coreceptors for entry. It was recently demonstrated that HIV-1 glycoprotein 120 (gp120) elevated calcium and activated several ionic signaling responses in primary human macrophages, which are important targets for HIV-1 in vivo. This study shows that chemokine receptor engagement by both CCR5-dependent (R5) and CXCR4-dependent (X4) gp120 led to rapid phosphorylation of the focal adhesion-related tyrosine kinase Pyk2 in macrophages. Pyk2 phosphorylation was also induced by macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta (MIP-1beta) and stromal cell-derived factor-1alpha, chemokine ligands for CCR5 and CXCR4. Activation was blocked by EGTA and by a potent blocker of calcium release-activated Ca++ (CRAC) channels, but was insensitive to pertussis toxin (PTX), implicating CRAC-mediated extracellular Ca++ influx but not Galpha(i) protein-dependent mechanisms. Coreceptor engagement by gp120 and chemokines also activated 2 members of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) superfamily, c-Jun amino-terminal kinase/stress-activated protein kinase and p38 MAPK. Furthermore, gp120-stimulated macrophages secreted the chemokines monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and MIP-1beta in a manner that was dependent on MAPK activation. Thus, the gp120 signaling cascade in macrophages includes coreceptor binding, PTX-insensitive signal transduction, ionic signaling including Ca++ influx, and activation of Pyk2 and MAPK pathways, and leads to secretion of inflammatory mediators. HIV-1 Env signaling through these pathways may contribute to dysregulation of uninfected macrophage functions, new target cell recruitment, or modulation of macrophage infection.

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