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Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2001 Dec;281(6):C1743-56.

Regulation of cardiac and smooth muscle Ca(2+) channels (Ca(V)1.2a,b) by protein kinases.

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  • 1Department of Physiology and Cell Biology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Reno, Nevada 89557, USA.


High voltage-activated Ca(2+) channels of the Ca(V)1.2 class (L-type) are crucial for excitation-contraction coupling in both cardiac and smooth muscle. These channels are regulated by a variety of second messenger pathways that ultimately serve to modulate the level of contractile force in the tissue. The specific focus of this review is on the most recent advances in our understanding of how cardiac Ca(V)1.2a and smooth muscle Ca(V)1.2b channels are regulated by different kinases, including cGMP-dependent protein kinase, cAMP-dependent protein kinase, and protein kinase C. This review also discusses recent evidence regarding the regulation of these channels by protein tyrosine kinase, calmodulin-dependent kinase, purified G protein subunits, and identification of possible amino acid residues of the channel responsible for kinase regulation.

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