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J Cardiothorac Vasc Anesth. 2001 Oct;15(5):603-10.

The effects of aprotinin and steroids on generation of cytokines during coronary artery surgery.

Author information

1
Department of Anesthesiology, Inönü University Hospital, Malatya, Turkey. rturkoz@yahoo.com

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To compare the efficacy of aprotinin and methylprednisolone in reducing cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB)-induced cytokine release, to evaluate the effect of myocardial cytokine release on systemic cytokine levels, and to determine the influence of cytokine release on perioperative and postoperative hemodynamics.

DESIGN:

Prospective, randomized clinical trial.

SETTING:

University teaching hospital and clinics.

PARTICIPANTS:

Thirty patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass graft surgery.

INTERVENTION:

Patients were randomly allocated into groups treated with aprotinin (n = 10) or methylprednisolone (n = 10) or into an untreated control group (n = 10). Aprotinin-treated patients received aprotinin as a high-dose regimen (6 x 10(6) KIU), and methylprednisolone-treated patients received methylprednisolone (30 mg/kg intravenously) before CPB.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:

Patients were analyzed for hemodynamic changes and alveolar-arterial PO2 difference (AaDO2) until the first postoperative day. Plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-alpha, interleukin [IL]-1beta, IL-6, and IL-8) were measured in peripheral arterial blood immediately before the induction of anesthesia, 5 minutes before CPB, 3 minutes after the start of CPB, 2 minutes after the release of the aortic cross-clamp, 1 hour after CPB, 6 hours after CPB, and 24 hours after CPB; and in coronary sinus blood immediately before CPB and 2 minutes after the release of the aortic cross-clamp. The hemodynamic parameters did not differ among the groups throughout the study. After CPB, AaDO2 significantly increased (p < 0.05) in all groups. A significant decrease in AaDO2 was observed in aprotinin-treated patients at 24 hours after CPB compared with the other groups (p < 0.05). TNF-alpha level from peripheral arterial blood significantly increased in control patients 1 hour after CPB (p < 0.01) and did not significantly increase in methylprednisolone-treated patients throughout the study. In all groups, IL-6 levels increased after the release of the aortic cross-clamp and reached peak values 6 hours after CPB. At 6 hours after CPB, the increase in IL-6 levels in methylprednisolone-treated patients was significantly less compared with levels measured in control patients and aprotinin-treated patients (p < 0.001). In control patients, IL-8 levels significantly increased 2 minutes after the release of the aortic cross-clamp (p < 0.05), and peak values were observed 1 hour after CPB (p < 0.01). IL-8 levels in control patients were significantly higher compared with patients treated with aprotinin and patients treated with methylprednisolone 1 hour after CPB (p < 0.05).

CONCLUSION:

This study showed that methylprednisolone suppresses TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-8 release; however, aprotinin attenuates IL-8 release alone. Methylprednisolone does not produce any additional positive hemodynamic and pulmonary effects. An improved postoperative AaDO2 was observed with the use of aprotinin.

PMID:
11688002
DOI:
10.1053/jcan.2001.26539
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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