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J Biol Chem. 1975 Jun 10;250(11):4053-9.

Activation of the action potential Na+ ionophore of cultured neuroblastoma cells by veratridine and batrachotoxin.


The activation of the action potential Na+ ionophore by veratridine and batrachotoxin is time- and concentration-dependent and completely reversible. Batrachotoxin acts more slowly than veratridine. The concentration dependence of activation at equilibrium suggests reversible interaction of each toxin with a single class of independent sites having dissociation constants at physiologic ion concentrations of 80 plus or minus 13 muM for veratridine and 0.4 plus or minus muM for batrachotoxin. The maximum velocity of Na+ uptake at 50 mM Na+ is 128 plus or minus 12 nmol/min/mg in the presence of batrachotoxin compared to 48 plus or minus 4 nmol/min/mg in the presence of veratridine. Treatment of cells with excess veratridine in addition to batrachotoxin inhibits batrachotoxin-dependent 22-Na+ uptake. The concentration dependence of this inhibition suggests that it reflects competitive displacement of batrachotoxin from its binding site by veratridine. The activation by veratridine and batrachotoxin is inhibited in a competitive manner by divalent cations. The inhibition by divalent cations exhibits significant ion specificity with Mn-2+ greater than Co-2+ greater than Ni-2+ greater than Ca-2+ greater than Mg-2+ greater than Sr-2+. The inhibition constants (KI) for Ca-2+ are 0.84 mM for veratridine-dependent 22-Na+ uptake and 1.2 mM for batrachotoxin-dependent 22-Na+ uptake. The activation by veratridine and batrachotoxin is inhibited in a noncompetitive manner by tetrodotoxin. The apparent KD for tetrodotoxin as 11 plus or minus 1 nM in the presence of 150 mM Na+ and approximately 8.5 nM in 50 mM Na+. Divalent cations do not affect the apparent KD for tetrodotoxin. A hypothesis is presented which suggests that batrachotoxin, veratridine, and divalent cations interact with an activation site associated with the action potential Na+ ionophore, whereas tetrodotoxin interacts with a physically and functionally independent site involved in the transport of monovalent cations by the ionophore.

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