Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
J Clin Neurosci. 2001 Nov;8(6):561-3.

Neuronal free Ca(2+)and BBB permeability and ultrastructure in head injury with secondary insult.

Author information

  • 1Department of Neurosurgery, Xijing Hospital, Xian, P.R. China.



To study changes in free calcium (Ca(2+)), neuronal and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and ultrastructure in brain after diffuse axonal injury (DAI) with secondary brain insults (SBIs).


One hundred and twenty Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomised into control, DAI alone and DAI with SBI groups which were sub-divided into 5 groups that were 0.5 h, 2 h, 12 h, 24 h, 48 h post trauma. The animal models of DAI and DAI with SBI have been described before (2). Fluorescence probe Fluo-3/Am was used to measure free Ca(2+)in neurons. Laser scan microscopy was used to detect fluorescence intensity. After the animals were anesthetized, Lanthanum nitrate liquid was used for intracardiac perfusion to assess BBB permeability. Under the transmission electron microscope, changes in cerebral ultrastructure and BBB permeability were observed.


The fluorescence intensity was weak in the control. The concentration of free Ca(2+)in neurons was obviously increased at 30 min after brain injury, reached a peak at 12 h-24 h (P< 0.01), and appeared to decrease at 48 h after injury. In the DAI alone group, BBB tight junction opening with particles of Lanthanum nitrate outside the vessels was found at 30 min after injury, and peaked at 24 h. In DAI with SBI, the changes in ultrastructure and BBB permeability were more severe than that in the DAI alone group at the same time interval. The shape of the fluorescence concentration curve was basically the same for both kinds of brain injury. The intensity of fluorescence in DAI with SBI was higher than that in the DAI alone group at the same time interval (P< 0.05).


In DAI alone and DAI with SBI, Ca(2+)overload and BBB permeability changes interact and both play important roles in the aggravation of brain damage.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for Elsevier Science
    Loading ...
    Support Center