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Hum Pathol. 2001 Oct;32(10):1116-24.

Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma: a clinicopathologic, immunohistochemical, and molecular analysis of 18 cases.

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Department of Pathology and Oncology, School of Medicine, University of Occupational and Environmental Health, Kitakyushu, Japan.


Extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcoma (EMCS) is an uncommon clinicopathologically well-defined tumor, but its pathogenesis and biologic behavior are poorly understood. We reviewed 18 cases of EMCS to verify clinicopathologic features and immunohistochemical profiles together with molecular detection of the tumor-specific fusion genes. The tumors were located mainly in the proximal extremities and limb girdles (72%). Two tumors arose at unusual anatomic sites: the finger and the hip joint. Nine of the 17 followed-up patients were alive and disease free, 4 were alive with recurrences and/or metastases, and 4 died of the tumor. Fifteen tumors showed typical features of EMCS, and 3 had hypercellular areas in addition to conventional EMCS areas. The tumors were variably immunoreactive for S-100 protein (50%), NSE (89%), peripherin (60%), and synaptophysin (22%). Chromogranin A and some epithelial markers (AE1/AE3, CAM5.2, and epithelial membrane antigen) were entirely negative. Frequent expressions of the neural/neuroendocrine markers suggest possible neural/neuroendocrine differentiation in at least some EMCSs, in addition to chondroid differentiation. In a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay using paraffin-embedded specimens, EWS-CHN or TAF2N-CHN fusion gene transcripts characteristic of EMCS could be detected in 15 (83%) of the 18 cases: EWS-CHN type 1 in 11 cases, EWS-CHN type 2 in 1, and TAF2N-CHN in 3. Three fusion-negative cases included 2 conventional EMCSs and 1 considered a "cellular" variant of the tumor. None of 30 other soft tissue and bone tumors with myxoid or chondroid morphology that we examined contained these fusion genes. Thus, RT-PCR detection of EWS-CHN or TAF2N-CHN fusion gene using archival paraffin-embedded tissue is a feasible and useful ancillary technique for the diagnosis of EMCS.

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