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J Biol Chem. 2001 Dec 28;276(52):49236-43. Epub 2001 Oct 19.

Role of tyrosine phosphorylation in ligand-independent sequestration of CXCR4 in human primary monocytes-macrophages.

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  • 1Laboratory of Gene Regulation, Division of Therapeutic Proteins, Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, Bethesda, Maryland 20892, USA.


The chemokine stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1 and its receptor, CXCR4, play important roles in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) pathophysiology, leukocyte trafficking, inflammation, hematopoiesis, embryogenesis, angiogenesis, and cancer metastasis. The effects of cytokines on the regulation of CXCR4 function were investigated in human primary monocytes-macrophages. The expression of functional CXCR4 on the cell surface was demonstrated by the detection of ligand-induced Ca(2+) mobilization, chemotaxis, and ligand-induced receptor endocytosis. Surface CXCR4 expression was down-regulated by cytokines interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-13, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and up-regulated by IL-10 and transforming growth factor-beta 1. Down-regulation was mediated post-translationally, in the absence of protein degradation, through an endocytotic mechanism. In contrast to SDF-1 alpha-induced CXCR4 endocytosis, cytokine-induced endocytosis of this receptor was independent of actin filament polymerization. GM-CSF increased the expression of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 3 (GRK3), beta-arrestin-1, Pyk2, and focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Cytokine treatment also increased the total and tyrosine-specific phosphorylation of CXCR4 as well as the phosphorylation of FAK on tyrosine 397. It also induced the formation of GRK3.CXCR4 or FAK.CXCR4 complexes. Infection of macrophages by primary R5X4 and X4 isolates of HIV-1 was inhibited by IL-4, IL-13, and GM-CSF, an effect that was associated with down-regulation of surface CXCR4 expression. These data indicate that ligand-dependent and ligand-independent endocytoses of CXCR4 are mediated by different mechanisms. Cytokine-induced endocytosis of chemokine receptors may be of therapeutic value in HIV-1 infection, inflammation, tumor metastasis, and defective hematopoiesis.

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