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Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 2001 Oct;110(10):976-81.

Screening of olfactory function with a four-minute odor identification test: reliability, normative data, and investigations in patients with olfactory loss.

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Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University of Dresden Medical School, Germany.


The study aimed to create a screening test on the basis of the odor identification test as used in the "Sniffin' Sticks" olfactory test kit. It should appeal to the practitioner in terms of 1) time required for testing, 2) reliability, 3) separation of "normal" from "abnormal," and 4) the fact that it allows lateralized screening. Experiments should provide a normative database (number of subjects > 1,000), establish test-retest reliability (n > 100), and compare results from patients with olfactory loss (n > 200). The correlation between results on 2 repetitive tests was .78. The test differentiated anosmics, hyposmics, and normosmics (p < .001). None of the 112 anosmics reached a score higher than 8; the 90th percentile was at a score of 6. When only 6 odors were used for calculating scores, for anosmics the 95th percentile was at a score of 4. These data provide a basis for the screening of patients by means of "Sniffin' Sticks."

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