Send to

Choose Destination
J Ind Microbiol Biotechnol. 2001 Aug;27(2):117-25.

Enteric virus contamination of foods through industrial practices: a primer on intervention strategies.

Author information

U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Delaware State University, W.W. Baker Center, Dover, DE 19901, USA.


Hepatitis A and E viruses, rotaviruses, Norwalk-like caliciviruses, and astroviruses are among the enteric viruses known to cause food- and waterborne illness. These viruses are spread by the fecal-oral route and are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Foods may be contaminated at any time pre- or post-harvest; however, many outbreaks are associated with foods handled by infected restaurant workers. Produce may be contaminated by improper irrigation or fertilization practices, by the hands of infected pickers or processors, or as the result of adulteration during any stage of handling. Outbreaks have been commonly associated with foods which are served raw or only lightly cooked, such as molluscan shellfish, fruits and vegetables, and salads or products contaminated after cooking like frosted bakery products. The farming, shellfish, processing, transportation, and restaurant industries must maintain vigilance to reduce outbreaks of enteric virus illness. Intervention strategies to enhance product safety include increased industry and consumer education; changes in industrial practices, product management, and processing technologies; worker immunizations; and the development of improved monitoring tools for the detection of enteric viruses in foods.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Springer
Loading ...
Support Center