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Toxicol Sci. 2001 Nov;64(1):100-10.

Dosimetry modeling of inhaled formaldehyde: comparisons of local flux predictions in the rat, monkey, and human nasal passages.

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  • 1CIIT Centers for Health Research, P.O. Box 12137, 6 Davis Drive, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina 27709, USA.


Formaldehyde-induced nasal squamous cell carcinomas in rats and squamous metaplasia in rats and rhesus monkeys occur in specific regions of the nose with species-specific distribution patterns. Experimental approaches addressing local differences in formaldehyde uptake patterns and dose are limited by the resolution of dissection techniques used to obtain tissue samples and the rapid metabolism of absorbed formaldehyde in the nasal mucosa. Anatomically accurate, 3-dimensional computational fluid dynamics models of F344 rat, rhesus monkey, and human nasal passages were used to estimate and compare regional inhaled formaldehyde uptake patterns predicted among these species. Maximum flux values, averaged over a breath, in nonsquamous epithelium were estimated to be 2620, 4492, and 2082 pmol/(mm(2)-h-ppm) in the rat, monkey, and human respectively. Flux values predicted in sites where cell proliferation rates were measured as similar in rats and monkeys were also similar, as were fluxes predicted in a region of high tumor incidence in the rat nose and the anterior portion of the human nose. Regional formaldehyde flux estimates are directly applicable to clonal growth modeling of formaldehyde carcinogenesis to help reduce uncertainty in human cancer risk estimates.

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