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Urology. 2001 Oct;58(4):536-9.

Treatment of refractory kidney transplant ureteral strictures using balloon cautery endoureterotomy.

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Urology Service, Tripler Army Medical Center, Honolulu, Hawaii 96859-5000, USA.



To report our long-term clinical results with the use of endoureterotomy in patients undergoing renal transplant with a minimum follow-up of 23 months.


Six renal transplant patients developed persistent ureteral obstruction demonstrated by elevated serum creatinine levels, renal ultrasound, and antegrade pyelography. Stent placement and balloon dilation were performed as the initial therapy in all patients. Persistent ureteral obstruction was managed with balloon cautery endoureterotomy. Ureteral stents were removed cystoscopically 6 weeks after the procedure.


Four men and 2 women, mean age 45 years (range 38 to 54), underwent eight procedures: six by way of an antegrade percutaneous approach and two in an endoscopic retrograde fashion. The sites of ureteral stricture were ureterovesical junction (n = 4), ureteropelvic junction (n = 1), and midureteroureteral (n = 1). Two patients required a second endoureterotomy 3 months after the first attempt. Patients were followed up for a mean of 27 months (range 23 to 34). The mean serum creatinine level for all patients at follow-up was 2.6 mg/dL (range 1.6 to 3.9), including a mean serum creatinine level of 1.8 mg/dL (range 1.6 to 1.9) for nonrejected kidneys and a mean of 3.4 mg/dL (range 2.5 to 3.9) in those found to have concurrent rejection. Overall, five (63%) of eight procedures were successful in 5 (83%) of 6 patients. No intraoperative complications occurred and no blood transfusions were required.


Balloon cautery endoureterotomy was successful in this select group of renal transplant patients with persistent ureteral strictures after initial balloon dilation and stenting failed. This modality proved durable to 27 months of follow-up without significant complications.

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