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Curr Opin Plant Biol. 2001 Oct;4(5):392-400.

Plant mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling cascades.

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Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114, USA.


Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascades have emerged as a universal signal transduction mechanism that connects diverse receptors/sensors to cellular and nuclear responses in eukaryotes. Recent studies in plants indicate that MAPK cascades are vital to fundamental physiological functions involved in hormonal responses, cell cycle regulation, abiotic stress signaling, and defense mechanisms. New findings have revealed the complexity and redundancy of the signaling components, the antagonistic nature of distinct pathways, and the use of both positive and negative regulatory mechanisms.

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