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Clin Microbiol Infect. 2001 Aug;7(8):428-31.

Typing of Clostridium difficile.

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Anaerobe Reference Unit, Public Health Laboratory, University Hospital of Wales, Heath Park, Cardiff, UK.


Clostridium difficile is primarily recognised as a nosocomially acquired pathogen manifesting in gastrointestinal disease subsequent to the patient receiving broad-spectrum antibiotics. Infection can be sporadic, but outbreaks commonly occur within a ward or hospital as a result of cross-infection. Since the 1980s, the epidemiology of C. difficile disease has been studied by the application of many different typing or fingerprinting methods; these, and the lessons learned, are reviewed herein.

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