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Curr Opin Microbiol. 2001 Oct;4(5):509-14.

Efflux-mediated drug resistance in Gram-positive bacteria.

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Influx Inc., 2201 West Campbell Park Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60612, USA.


Gram-positive bacteria express numerous membrane transporters that promote the efflux of various drugs, including many antibiotics, from the cell to the outer medium. Drug transporters can be specific to a particular drug, or can have broad specificity, as in so-called multidrug transporters. This broad specificity can be a consequence of the hydrophobic nature of transported molecules, as suggested by recent structural studies of soluble multidrug-binding proteins. Although the functions of drug transporters may involve both the protection of bacteria from outside toxins and the transport of natural metabolites, their clinical importance lies largely in providing Gram-positive pathogens with resistance to macrolides, tetracyclines and fluoroquinolones. A number of agents, discovered in recent years, that inhibit drug transporters can potentially be used to overcome efflux-associated antibiotic resistance.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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