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J Infect Dis. 2001 Oct 15;184(8):1007-14. Epub 2001 Aug 30.

Early immunologic events in mucosal and systemic lymphoid tissues after intrarectal inoculation with simian immunodeficiency virus.

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Children's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.


The pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus transmission via the rectal route remains poorly understood. By use of the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-rhesus macaque model and intrarectal inoculation with pathogenic SIVmac251, a significant increase was found in the percentage of CD11b(+) monocyte lineage cells expressing HLA-DR and/or B7-2 in local and peripheral immune inductive sites, but not in mucosal effector sites, as early as 7 days after inoculation and up to 50 days after inoculation. Moreover, at 21 and 50 days after inoculation, not only the gut but also the lung mucosa were depleted of CD4(+) T cells, which suggests that early loss of CD4(+) T cells may be a common feature of mucosal effector sites. These data suggest that, after intrarectal inoculation with SIV, early activation occurs within the monocyte lineage cell population at immunologic inductive sites, which is followed by a loss of CD4(+) T cells at local and distant mucosal effector sites.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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