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Diabetes Care. 2001 Oct;24(10):1751-7.

Contributors to depression in Latino and European-American patients with type 2 diabetes.

Author information

1
Department of Family & Community Medicine, University of California, San Francisco 94143, USA. fisher@itsa.ucsf.edu

Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

To determine the independent and cumulative contributions of diabetes and other life stresses on depression and anxiety in Latino and European-American (EA) patients with diabetes.

RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS:

A total of 75 Latino and 113 EA patients with type 2 diabetes, recruited from managed care settings, were assessed regarding three groups of potential stresses: demographics (age, sex, and education), disease status (functional impact, time since diagnosis, comorbidities, HbA(1c), and BMI), and family stress (financial stress, spouse conflict resolution, and family closeness). Dependent variables were depression (Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale [CES-D]) and anxiety (Symptom Checklist [SCL-90]). Multiple regression equations assessed the independent contribution of each predictor on depression and anxiety.

RESULTS:

For both ethnic groups, education, functional impact, and financial stress significantly and independently predicted depression; poor spouse conflict resolution was a fourth significant predictor for EA patients only. The equations accounted for a high percentage of variance (43- 55%). Excluding education, the same variables predicted anxiety for both ethnic groups. The disease status and family stress variable groups significantly predicted outcomes independently. The relationships among these variables and depression and anxiety generally occurred for all patients, not only for those classified as likely depressed.

CONCLUSIONS:

The findings suggest the utility of considering many life stresses, not just diabetes alone, that combine to affect depression and anxiety. We suggest that these effects are experienced cumulatively as general psychological distress for all patients with diabetes, not just those classified as likely depressed. Taken together, the findings emphasize a life-centered, patient-focused approach to the treatment of depression, rather than an exclusive disease-related perspective.

PMID:
11574437
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
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