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Curr Genet. 2001 Aug;40(1):65-72.

Spontaneous loss of a conditionally dispensable chromosome from the Alternaria alternata apple pathotype leads to loss of toxin production and pathogenicity.

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Laboratory of Plant Pathology, Faculty of Agriculture, Tottori University, Japan.


The Alternaria alternata apple pathotype causes Alternaria blotch of susceptible apple cultivars through the production of a cyclic peptide, host-specific toxin, AM-toxin. We recently cloned a cyclic peptide synthetase gene, AMT, whose product catalyzes the production of AM-toxin and showed that it resides on chromosomes of 1.8 Mb or less, depending on the A. alternata apple pathotype strain. Reverse transcriptase (RT)-PCR, using primers specific to AMT, on laboratory sub-cultured strains previously shown to produce AM-toxin, identified one isolate that did not express the gene. A leaf necrosis bioassay confirmed an AM-toxin-minus phenotype. However, an original isolate of this strain which had not undergone sub-culture gave a positive result by both RTPCR and bioassay. Contour-clamped homogeneous electric field electrophoresis and Southern hybridization demonstrated the loss of a 1.1-Mb chromosome in the non-toxin-producing isolate. Since this chromosome can be entirely lost without affecting growth, but is necessary for pathogenicity, we propose it is a conditionally dispensable chromosome.

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