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J Biol Chem. 2001 Nov 30;276(48):44926-35. Epub 2001 Sep 19.

Osteopontin stimulates tumor growth and activation of promatrix metalloproteinase-2 through nuclear factor-kappa B-mediated induction of membrane type 1 matrix metalloproteinase in murine melanoma cells.

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National Center for Cell Science, NCCS Complex, Pune 411 007, India.


Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) degrade the extracellular matrix (ECM) and play critical roles in tissue repair, tumor invasion, and metastasis. MMPs are regulated by different cytokines, ECM proteins, and other factors. However, the molecular mechanisms by which osteopontin (OPN), an ECM protein, regulates ECM invasion and tumor growth and modulates MMP activation in B16F10 cells are not well defined. We have purified OPN from human milk and shown that OPN induces pro-MMP-2 production and activation in these cells. Moreover, our data revealed that OPN-induced membrane type 1 (MT1) MMP expression correlates with translocation of p65 (nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB)) into the nucleus. However, when the super-repressor form of IkappaBalpha (inhibitor of NF-kappaB) was transfected into cells followed by treatment with OPN, no induction of MT1-MMP expression was observed, indicating that OPN activates pro-MMP-2 via an NF-kappaB-mediated pathway. OPN also enhanced cell migration and ECM invasion by interacting with alpha(v)beta(3) integrin, but these effects were reduced drastically when the MMP-2-specific antisense S-oligonucleotide was used to suppress MMP-2 expression. Interestingly, when the OPN-treated cells were injected into nude mice, the mice developed larger tumors, and the MMP-2 levels in the tumors were significantly higher than in controls. The proliferation data indicate that OPN increases the growth rate in these cells. Both tumor size and MMP-2 expression were reduced dramatically when anti-MMP-2 antibody or antisense S-oligonucleotide-transfected cells were injected into the nude mice. To our knowledge, this is the first report that MMP-2 plays a direct role in OPN-induced cell migration, invasion, and tumor growth and that demonstrates that OPN-stimulated MMP-2 activation occurs through NF-kappaB-mediated induction of MT1-MMP.

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