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Water Res. 2001 Oct;35(15):3635-42.

Water quality and uses of the Bangpakong River (eastern Thailand).

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Laboratory of Hydrobiology, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Porto, Portugal.


The Bangpakong River is the most important watershed in the Eastern part of Thailand. Water quality parameters were sampled from June 1998 through May 1999 at 11 sites along a 227 km gradient, covering the wet season (June-November) and the dry season (December-May). Surface water was collected at three different stations per site (close to the banks and in the middle of the river), and analyzed for temperature, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, suspended solids, pH. ammonia, fecal coliforms, biochemical oxygen demand and chemical oxygen demand as well as conductivity, phosphate, and heavy metals. The Scottish water quality index (WQI) was adaptated to the tropical environment. The averaged WQI was low (41%) and quality declined significantly during the dry season (ANOVA, p<0.001). Although the quality rose somewhat at middle sites, only 27% of the WQI values during wet season and 2.5% during dry season were higher than 50%, denoting poor environmental quality. Within each season, the main sources of variability were the differences between sites along the gradient (48% during the wet season, 63% during the dry season), whereas monthly variability represented less than 20% of the variability. The seasonal results show that the river is suitable only for tolerant fish and wildlife species and is of doubtful use for potable water supply during the dry season. As quality improves during the wet period, water can be used for the production of potable water, but only with advanced treatment, and for indirect and noncontact recreational activities. In the middle stretches of the river, higher water quality permits multiple uses at moderate cost.

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