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Int J Toxicol. 2001;20 Suppl 2:65-77.

Final report on the safety assessment of Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Oil, Hydrogenated Peanut Oil, Peanut Acid, Peanut Glycerides, and Peanut (Arachis hypogaea) Flour.

[No authors listed]

Abstract

Peanut (Arachis Hypogaea) Oil is the refined fixed oil obtained from the seed kernels of Arachis hypogaea. Hydrogenated Peanut Oil, Peanut Acid, and Peanut Glycerides are all derived from Peanut Oil. Peanut Flour is a powder obtained by the grinding of peanuts. The oils and glycerides function in cosmetic formulations as skin-conditioning agents. The acid functions as a surfactant-cleansing agent, and the flour functions as an abrasive, bulking agent and/or viscosity-increasing agent. In 1998, only Peanut Oil and Hydrogenated Peanut Oil were reported in use. When applied to the skin, Peanut Oil can enhance the absorption of other compounds. Hepatic changes were noted at microscopic examination of rats fed diets containing 15% edible Peanut Oil for 28 days, although no control group was maintained and the findings were also noted in rats fed fresh corn oil. United States Pharmacopeia (USP)-grade Peanut Oil was considered relatively nonirritating when injected into guinea pigs and monkeys. Technical-grade Peanut Oil was moderately irritating to rabbits and guinea pigs and mildly irritating to rats following dermal exposure. This same oil produced reactions in < or = 10% of 50 human males. Peanut Oil was not an ocular irritant in rabbits. Peanut Oil, either "laboratory expressed" or extracted using a food-grade solvent, was not carcinogenic to mice. Peanut Oil exerted anticarcinogenic activity when tested against known carcinogens. Peanuts are the food most likely to produce allergic and anaphylactic reactions. The major allergen is a protein that does not partition into Peanut Oil, Hydrogenated Peanut Oil, Peanut Acid, and Peanut Glycerides. Aflatoxins can be produced in stored agricultural crops such as peanuts, but do not partition into the oils, acids, or glycerides. Manufacturers were cautioned to make certain that the oils, acids, and glycerides are free of aflatoxins and protein. Formulators were cautioned that the oils, acids, or glycerides may enhance penetration and can affect the use of other ingredients whose safety assessment was based on their lack of absorption. The available studies on Peanut Oil supported the conclusion that Peanut Oil, Hydrogenated Peanut Oil, Peanut Acid, and Peanut Glycerides are safe for use in cosmetic formulations. Peanut (Arachis Hypogaea) Flour, however, is sufficiently different from the above ingredients such that its safety can not be supported by studies using the oil. The additional data needed for Peanut (Arachis Hypogaea) Flour are (1) concentration of use; (2) chemical specifications (i.e., aflatoxin and protein levels); (3) method of preparation; and (4) contact urticaria and dermal sensitization at concentration of use. Although data on aflatoxin levels are sought, it is expected that concentrations of aflatoxin should comply with U.S. government stipulations. Absent the additional data, it was concluded that the available data are insufficient to support the safety of Peanut (Arachis Hypogaea) Flour for use in cosmetic products.

PMID:
11558642
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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