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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Sep 11;98(19):10757-62.

Reward and punishment.

Author information

1
Institute for Mathematics, University of Vienna, Strudlhofgasse 4, A-1090 Vienna, Austria.

Abstract

Minigames capturing the essence of Public Goods experiments show that even in the absence of rationality assumptions, both punishment and reward will fail to bring about prosocial behavior. This result holds in particular for the well-known Ultimatum Game, which emerges as a special case. But reputation can induce fairness and cooperation in populations adapting through learning or imitation. Indeed, the inclusion of reputation effects in the corresponding dynamical models leads to the evolution of economically productive behavior, with agents contributing to the public good and either punishing those who do not or rewarding those who do. Reward and punishment correspond to two types of bifurcation with intriguing complementarity. The analysis suggests that reputation is essential for fostering social behavior among selfish agents, and that it is considerably more effective with punishment than with reward.

PMID:
11553811
PMCID:
PMC58548
DOI:
10.1073/pnas.161155698
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article

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