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Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Sep 25;98(20):11224-9. Epub 2001 Sep 11.

Comprehensive survey of proteins targeted by chloroplast thioredoxin.

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Chemical Resources Laboratory, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatsuta 4259, Midori-ku, Yokohama 226-8503, Japan.


Possible target proteins of chloroplast thioredoxin (Trx) have been investigated in the stroma lysate of spinach chloroplasts. For that purpose, we immobilized a mutant of m-type Trx in which an internal cysteine at the active site was substituted with serine, on cyanogen bromide-activated resin. By using this resin, the target proteins in chloroplast were efficiently acquired when they formed the mixed-disulfide intermediates with the immobilized Trxs. We could acquire Rubisco activase (45 kDa) and 2-Cys-type peroxiredoxin (Prx), which were recently identified as targets of chloroplast Trxs. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and sedoheputulose 1,7-bisphosphatase, well-known thiol enzymes in the Calvin cycle, also were recognized among the collected proteins, suggesting the method is applicable for our purpose. Furthermore, four proteins were identified from a homology search of the NH(2)-terminal sequence of the acquired proteins: glutamine synthetase, a protein homologous to chloroplast cyclophilin, a homolog of Prx-Q, and the Rubisco small subunit. The Trx susceptibilities of the recombinant cyclophilin and Prx-Q of Arabidopsis thaliana were then examined. The method developed in the present study is thus applicable to investigate the various redox networks via Trxs and the related enzymes in the cell.

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