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J Urol. 2001 Oct;166(4):1275-9.

Serum levels of vascular endothelial growth factor as a prognostic factor in bladder cancer.

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Department of Urology, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire and INSERM, Besançon, France.



Vascular endothelial growth factor is an overriding growth factor mediating tumor angiogenesis. We correlated serum vascular endothelial growth factor in patients with bladder cancer with clinical parameters.


Serum vascular endothelial growth factor in 58 patients with bladder cancer, including superficial and invasive tumors in 42 and 16, respectively, and 41 healthy controls was measured by sandwich enzyme immunoassay.


Significant differences in serum vascular endothelial growth factor were observed in healthy controls and patients with bladder cancer (mean 248 versus 100 pg./ml., p <0.001). The serum level was significantly associated with tumor stage (p <0.0001), grade (p <0.002), vascular invasion (p <0.001) and carcinoma in situ (p <0.01). Patients with metastasis had a significantly higher levels than those with localized diseases (mean 582 versus 194 pg./ml., p <0.0001). At a cut-off of 400 pg./ml. the sensitivity and specificity of the test for differentiating patients with and without metastatic diseases was 87.5% and 98%, respectively (p <0.0001). Univariate statistical analysis showed that an increase in serum vascular endothelial growth factor level greater than 400 pg./ml. was significantly related to disease-free survival. On multivariate analysis only stage remained as an independent prognostic factor.


Although vascular endothelial growth factor did not remain an independent prognostic factor on multivariate analysis, our data indicate that the level of vascular endothelial growth factor may be a valuable angiogenic marker for identifying metastatic bladder cancer. It may be used as a new predictor of disease.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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