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J Immunol. 2001 Sep 15;167(6):3494-504.

Monokine induced by IFN-gamma is a dominant factor directing T cells into murine cardiac allografts during acute rejection.

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Urological Institute and Department of Immunology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH 44195, USA.


The use of chemokine antagonism as a strategy to inhibit leukocyte trafficking into inflammatory sites requires identification of the dominant chemokines mediating recruitment. The chemokine(s) directing T cells into cardiac allografts during acute rejection remain(s) unidentified. The role of the CXC chemokines IFN-gamma inducible protein 10 (IP-10) and monokine induced by IFN-gamma (Mig) in acute rejection of A/J (H-2(a)) cardiac grafts by C57BL/6 (H-2(b)) recipients was tested. Intra-allograft expression of Mig was observed at day 2 posttransplant and increased to the time of rejection at day 7 posttransplant. IP-10 mRNA and protein production were 2.5- to 8-fold lower than Mig. Whereas allografts were rejected at day 7-9 in control recipients, treatment with rabbit antiserum to Mig, but not to IP-10, prolonged allograft survival up to day 19 posttransplant. At day 7 posttransplant, allografts from Mig antiserum-treated recipients had marked reduction in T cell infiltration. At the time of rejection in Mig antiserum-treated recipients (i.e., days 17-19), intra-allograft expression of macrophage-inflammatory protein-1alpha, -1beta, and their ligand CCR5 was high, whereas expression of CXCR3, the Mig receptor, was virtually absent. Mig was produced by the allograft endothelium as well as by recipient allograft-infiltrating macrophages and neutrophils, indicating the synergistic interactions between innate and adaptive immune compartments during acute rejection. Collectively, these results indicate that Mig is a dominant recruiting factor for alloantigen-primed T cells into cardiac allografts during acute rejection. Although Mig antagonism delays acute heart allograft rejection, the results also suggest that the alloimmune response circumvents Mig antagonism through alternative mechanisms.

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