Send to

Choose Destination
Am J Hum Biol. 2000 Mar;12(2):151-166.

How sexually dimorphic are we? Review and synthesis.

Author information

Department of Molecular and Cell Biology and Biochemistry, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island.


The belief that Homo sapiens is absolutely dimorphic with the respect to sex chromosome composition, gonadal structure, hormone levels, and the structure of the internal genital duct systems and external genitalia, derives from the platonic ideal that for each sex there is a single, universally correct developmental pathway and outcome. We surveyed the medical literature from 1955 to the present for studies of the frequency of deviation from the ideal male or female. We conclude that this frequency may be as high as 2% of live births. The frequency of individuals receiving "corrective" genital surgery, however, probably runs between 1 and 2 per 1,000 live births (0.1-0.2%). Am. J. Hum. Biol. 12:151-166, 2000.

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Wiley
Loading ...
Support Center