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J Leukoc Biol. 2001 Sep;70(3):357-66.

Hemofiltrate CC chemokines with unique biochemical properties: HCC-1/CCL14a and HCC-2/CCL15.

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IPF PharmaCeuticals GmbH, Institute of the Medical School of Hanover, Section of Pharmacology, D-30625 Hanover, Germany.


The hemofiltrate CC chemokines CCL14a (formerly HCC-1), CCL14b (formerly HCC-3), and CCL15 (formerly HCC-2) are encoded by mono- as well as bicistronic transcripts from a tandem gene arrangement on human chromosome 17q11.2. The transcription and splicing into several mono- and bicistronic transcripts of this gene complex are unique for human genes. No corresponding mechanism is known in nonprimate mammalian species such as mice and rats. The extremely high concentration of CCL14a in human plasma is exceptional for chemokines and led to the identification of this chemokine. Several molecular forms of CCL14a have been isolated and investigated. The mature propeptide CCL14a(1-74) is a low-affinity agonist of CCR1 which is converted to a high-affinity agonist of CCR1 and CCR5 on proteolytic processing by serine proteases. In contrast, CCL15 is characterized using molecular forms deduced from the mRNA/cDNA and shown to activate cells via CCR1 and CCR3, also dependent on the amino-terminal length. Hemofiltrate CC chemokines are chemoattractants for different types of leukocytes including monocytes, eosinophils, T cells, dendritic cells, and neutrophils. In this review, we emphasize the genomic organization, expression patterns, and biochemical properties of CCL14a, CCL14b, and CCL15. We report results of significance for the development of therapeutic strategies, especially concerning HIV infection and inflammatory diseases.

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