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Bioinformatics. 2001 Aug;17(8):713-20.

Evaluation of protein multiple alignments by SAM-T99 using the BAliBASE multiple alignment test set.

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Computer Engineering, University of California, Santa Cruz, 59064, USA.



SAM-T99 is an iterative hidden Markov model-based method for finding proteins similar to a single target sequence and aligning them. One of its main uses is to produce multiple alignments of homologs of the target sequence. Previous tests of SAM-T99 and its predecessors have concentrated on the quality of the searches performed, not on the quality of the multiple alignment. In this paper we report on tests of multiple alignment quality, comparing SAM-T99 to the standard multiple aligner, CLUSTALW.


The paper evaluates the multiple-alignment aspect of the SAM-T99 protocol, using the BAliBASE benchmark alignment database. On these benchmarks, SAM-T99 is comparable in accuracy with ClustalW.


The SAM-T99 protocol can be run on the web at and the alignment tune-up option described here can be run at The protocol is also part of the standard SAM suite of tools.

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