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J Endotoxin Res. 2000;6(5):389-91.

Innate recognition of lipopolysaccharide by Toll-like receptor 4/MD-2 and RP105/MD-1.

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Department of Immunology, Saga Medical School, Nabeshima, Saga, Japan.


The Toll family of receptors has been implicated in innate recognition and subsequent activation of defense programs against pathogens such as bacteria and fungi. TLR4, for example, signals the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a membrane constituent of Gram-negative bacteria. LPS signaling via TLR4 is greatly enhanced by a molecule referred to as MD-2, which is associated with the extracellular domain of TLR4. The TLR4/MD-2 complex, therefore, recognizes LPS. RP105, another member of the Toll family, has a striking similarity to TLR4 in that it is associated with an MD-2-like molecule MD-1. B-cells lacking RP105 are severely impaired in LPS-induced proliferation and antibody production. Studies employing transfectants showed that RP105/MD-1, like MD-2, enhances the LPS signaling via TLR4. RP105/MD-1 thus constitutes an LPS-signaling complex on B-cells. These results suggest that a variety of cell surface molecules regulate LPS recognition/signaling by TLR4.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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