Send to

Choose Destination
See comment in PubMed Commons below
Science. 2001 Aug 24;293(5534):1467-70.

An ultradense polymorph of rutile with seven-coordinated titanium from the Ries crater.

Author information

  • 1Max-Planck-Institut für Chemie, J. Joachim-Becher-Weg 27, 55128 Mainz, Germany.


We report the discovery of an ultradense post-rutile polymorph of titanium dioxide in shocked gneisses of the Ries crater in Germany. The microscopic diagnostic feature is intense blue internal reflections in crossed polarizers in reflected light. X-ray diffraction studies revealed a monoclinic lattice, isostructural with the baddeleyite ZrO2 polymorph, and the titanium cation is coordinated with seven oxygen anions. The cell parameters are as follows: a = 4.606(2) angstroms, b = 4.986(3) angstroms, c = 4.933(3) angstroms, beta (angle between c and a axes) = 99.17(6) degrees; space group P2(1)/c; density = 4.72 grams per cubic centimeter, where the numbers in parentheses are standard deviations in the last significant digits. This phase is 11% denser than rutile. The mineral is sensitive to x-ray irradiation and tends to invert to rutile. The presence of baddeleyite-type TiO2 in the shocked rocks indicates that the peak shock pressure was between 16 and 20 gigapascals, and the post-shock temperature was much lower than 500 degrees C.

Free full text
PubMed Commons home

PubMed Commons

How to join PubMed Commons

    Supplemental Content

    Full text links

    Icon for HighWire
    Loading ...
    Support Center