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Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2001 Sep 23;51(1-3):21-42.

Nasal vaccines.

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Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Nottingham, Boots Science Building, Science Road, University Park, NG7 2RD, Nottingham, UK.


The nasal route for vaccination offers some important opportunities, especially for the prophylaxis of respiratory diseases. Vaccination via the respiratory tract is reviewed and the deposition and clearance of antigens in the deep lung and nose are described and contrasted. Lymphoid structures in the respiratory tract differ according to species; the rat and mouse have a well developed nose-associated lymphoid tissue, while in man, the structure known as Waldeyer's ring (that includes the tonsils), is important as an induction site. The immune response following intranasal administration can provide protection at the administration site and at various effector sites as part of the common mucosal immune system. A number of formulation considerations are important when designing novel systems for nasal administration as are physiological factors such as mucociliary clearance.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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