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Skin Pharmacol Appl Skin Physiol. 2001;14 Suppl 1:92-7.

The human stratum corneum layer: an effective barrier against dermal uptake of different forms of topically applied micronised titanium dioxide.

Author information

1
Research and Development, Merck KGaA, Darmstadt, Germany.

Abstract

Electron microscopy visualisation and light microscopic investigations of three different application forms of titanium dioxide proved that neither surface characteristics, particle size nor shape of the micronised titanium dioxide result in any dermal absorption of this substance: Micronised titanium dioxide is solely deposited on the outermost surface of the stratum corneum and cannot be detected in deeper stratum corneum layers, the human epidermis and dermis.

PMID:
11509913
DOI:
10.1159/000056396
[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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