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Toxicol Sci. 2001 Sep;63(1):143-8.

Oxidative stress and reactive nitrogen species generation during renal ischemia.

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Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock, Arkansas 72205, USA.


Previous evidence suggests that both oxygen radicals and nitric oxide (NO) are important mediators of injury during renal ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury. However, the generation of reactive nitrogen species (RNS) has not been evaluated in this model at early time points. The purpose of these studies was to examine the development of oxidant stress and the formation of RNS during I-R injury. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized and subjected to 40 min of bilateral renal ischemia followed by 0, 3, or 6 h of reperfusion. Control animals received a sham operation. Plasma urea nitrogen and creatinine levels were monitored as markers of renal injury. Glutathione (GSH) oxidation and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE)-protein adducts were used as markers of oxidant stress. 3-Nitrotyrosine (3-NT) was used as a biomarker of RNS formation. Significant increases in plasma creatinine concentrations and urea nitrogen levels were found following both 3 and 6 h of reperfusion. Increases in GSH oxidation, 4-HNE-protein adduct levels, and 3-NT levels were observed following 40 min of ischemia with no reperfusion. Since these results suggested RNS generation during the 40 min of ischemia, a time course of RNS generation following 0, 5, 10, 20, and 40 min of ischemia was evaluated. Significant increases in 3-NT generation was detected as early as 10 min of ischemia and rose to values nearly 10-fold higher than Control at 40 min of ischemia. No additional increase was observed following reperfusion. The data clearly demonstrate that oxidative stress and RNS generation occur in the kidney during ischemia.

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