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Ann Clin Lab Sci. 2001 Jul;31(3):221-44.

Review: molecular thyroidology.

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Department of Pathology, Immunology and Laboratory Medicine, University of Florida College of Medicine, Gainesville 32610-0275, USA.


Novel disorders involving aberrations of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid gland-thyroid hormone axis have been described in the last 5 to 10 years. The following topics are addressed: molecular mutations causing central hypothyroidism (isolated autosomal recessive TRH deficiency; autosomal recessive TRH-receptor inactivating mutations; TSH beta-subunit bio-inactivating mutations; Pit-1 mutations; Prop1 mutations; high molecular weight bio-inactive TSH); defects in response to TSH (mutations in the TSH receptor: TSH receptor gain-of-function mutations; TSH receptor loss-of-function mutations); defects in thyroid gland formation: transcription factor mutations (TTF-2 and Pax8); defects in peripheral thyroid hormone metabolism (defective intrapituitary conversion of T4 to T3; hemangioma consumption of thyroid hormone); and defects in tissue response to thyroid hormone (generalized thyroid hormone resistance, selective pituitary thyroid hormone resistance). While molecular diagnosis of such conditions is rarely indicated for clinical management, knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of these diseases can greatly enhance the clinical laboratory scientist's ability to advise clinicians about appropriate thyroid testing and to interpret the complex and sometimes confusing results of thyroid function tests.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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