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J Biol Regul Homeost Agents. 2001 Apr-Jun;15(2):123-9.

Identification and characterization of androgen receptor associated coregulators in prostate cancer cells.

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  • 1Department of Pathology, and The Cancer Center, University of Rochester, NY, USA.


The androgen receptor (AR) is a member of the nuclear receptor (NR) superfamily that mediates the effects of androgens on target tissues. Over the last decade, it has become apparent that NRs require accessory factors for optimal activation of target gene expression. Numerous NR coregulators have been identified, with diverse structures and potential mechanisms of coregulation, creating an increasingly complicated picture of NR action. Due to the expanding complexity of the coregulator field, this review will focus on the AR ligand-binding domain (LBD) and N-terminal interacting proteins identified by our lab. The LBD-interacting proteins ARA70, ARA55 and ARA54 were first characterized and ARA70 was found to have a relatively higher specificity for the AR in human prostate cancer DU145 cells. Characterization of the functional relationship between the AR and these coregulators indicated that ARA70 and ARA55 could enhance the androgenic effects of 17beta-estradiol (E2) and hydroxyflutamide (HF), an antiandrogen commonly used in the treatment of prostate cancer. ARA160, an AR N-terminal interacting protein also known as TATA element modulatory factor (TMF), was subsequently shown to cooperate with ARA70 in enhancing AR activity. Another AR N-terminal interacting protein, ARA24, interacted with the poly-Q tract, a region within the N-terminus of the AR linked to Kennedy's disease (X-linked spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy). More recently, our lab has identified ARA267, a SET domain containing protein, and supervillin, an F-actin binding protein, as AR coregulators. Collectively, the data from these studies indicate that these coregulators are necessary for optimal AR transactivation. Interruption of the interaction between AR and these proteins may serve as a new therapeutic target in the treatment of prostate cancer.

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