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J Periodontol. 2001 Jul;72(7):911-20.

Histopathological morphometric evaluation of 2 different hydroxyapatite-bone derivatives in sinus augmentation procedures: a comparative study in humans.

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Department of Periodontology, The Maurice and Gabriela Goldschleger School of Dental Medicine, Tel Aviv University, Israel.



Xenografts to augment the maxillary sinus have been used extensively. The aim of the present study was to evaluate, qualitatively and quantitatively, two different HA derivatives of natural and synthetic sources on newly formed bone in the augmented sinus.


A bilateral sinus augmentation procedure with simultaneous (16 out of 20 sites) or subsequent implant placement was performed in 10 patients. The antrum was randomly filled with a deproteinized, bovine hydroxyapatite mineral (B-HA) on one side and a non-ceramic resorbable hydroxyapatite (NC-HA) on the other. Cylindrical specimens were harvested from the augmented core at 12 months. Decalcified specimens were sectioned at a cross-horizontal plane and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histopathologic and histomorphometric examinations. Tissue area fractions of bone, marrow, and the grafted particles were calculated for each specimen from the lateral to the deep region, and changes in values were compared within each material and between them.


New bone formation was evident. B-HA and NC-HA particles were observed in all specimens surrounded by newly formed bone in direct connection or by soft tissue marrow. Morphometrically in the B-HA sites, from the lateral to deeper area, bone area fraction increased from 29.8% to 54.2% (average 42.1%) and marrow area fraction decreased from 37.9% to 26.7% (average 33.3%). The mineral area fraction decreased from 32.3% to 19.1% (average 24.7%). All increasing/decreasing patterns were statistically significant (P < 0.001). In the NC-HA sites, from the lateral to deeper area, bone area fraction increased from 25% to 36.5% (average 32.3%) and marrow area fraction decreased from 51.6% to 41.9% (average 43.2%) (P <0.001). The mineral area fraction decreased from 29% to 21.7% (average 24.6%) (P = 0.038). Comparison between the two HA derivative groups showed a significant difference between the bone area fraction averages (P = 0.0053) and between the increasing patterns along the core depth (P = 0.0006). There was also a significant difference between the decreasing marrow patterns (P = 0.003), but not between their averages. Comparison between the mineral area fractions showed no differences.


B-HA and NC-HA were proven to be biocompatible materials. Although the B-HA-augmented sites showed a higher percentage of bone formation at 12 months, both are suitable bone derivatives in sinus augmentation procedures and can accommodate osseointegrated implants.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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