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J Urol. 2001 Sep;166(3):831-6.

Complex perioperative immuno-dysfunction in patients with renal cell carcinoma.

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Department of Urology, Institute of Experimental Internal Medicine, Otto-von-Guericke-University, Magdeburg, Germany.



Patients with renal cell carcinoma have an impaired function of the immune system, which is the basis for different approaches of immunotherapy. We address perioperative changes of several parameters of the immune system in these patients.


Parameters of cellular and humoral immunity, including differential blood count, T cell markers CD2, 3, 4 and 8, B cell markers CD19 and 20, monocyte markers CD13 and 14, natural killer cell marker CD16, activation markers CD25, CD26 and HLA-DR, and cytokines interleukin-1 (IL-1) receptor antagonist, IL-2, soluble IL-2 receptor, IL-6, IL-10 and transforming growth factor-beta, were measured in the venous blood of patients who underwent renal surgery extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL, Dornier Medical Systems, Inc., Marietta, Georgia). Patients were grouped and age matched, and 37 underwent tumor nephrectomy, 20 open renal surgery for nonmalignant reasons and 24 ESWL. A group consisting of 39 controls received no treatment.


Little change was detected in controls and those patients who received ESWL. Patients who underwent open renal surgery had increased leukocyte and granulocyte counts until postoperative day 3 but had low T cell counts. The postoperative decrease in CD25 expressing cells corresponded to an increase in the soluble IL-2-receptor. Cytokines IL-6 and 10, which also have immunosuppressive properties, were markedly increased postoperatively. These changes were more noted (p <0.01) in those patients who underwent tumor nephrectomy than open renal surgery for nonmalignant reasons and remained detectable when paired patients with similar surgical trauma were compared. In tumor nephrectomy cases renal venous IL-6 was higher than peripheral venous levels.


Patients with renal cell carcinoma suffer from selective immuno-dysfunction, indicating a rationale for perioperative immunomodulation.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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