Send to

Choose Destination
Toxicol Lett. 2001 Jul 6;122(3):189-203.

Use of cDNA microarrays to analyze dioxin-induced changes in human liver gene expression.

Author information

Department of Molecular Pharmacology, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA 95305-5332, USA.


One mechanism by which cells adapt to environmental changes is by altering gene expression. Here, we have used cDNA microarrays to identify genes whose expression is altered by exposure to the environmental contaminant 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). The goal of our study was to enhance our understanding of toxicity mediated through the pathway by which TCDD stimulates gene expression. To model this toxicity response, we exposed human hepatoma (HepG2) cells to TCDD (10 nM for 18 h) and analyzed mRNA by two-color fluorescent hybridization to cDNA sequences immobilized on glass microscope slides (2.5 x 7.5 cm) covering a surface area of 2.25 cm(2). We analyzed approximately one-third of the genes expressed in HepG2 cells and found that TCDD up- or down-regulates 112 genes two-fold or more. Most changes are relatively subtle (two- to four-fold). We verified the regulation of protooncogene cot, XMP, and human enhancer of filamentation-1 (HEF1), genes involved in cellular proliferation, as well as metallothionein, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI1), and HM74, genes involved in cellular signaling and regeneration. To characterize the response in more detail, we performed time-course, dose-dependence studies, and cycloheximide experiments. We observed direct and indirect responses to TCDD implying that adaptation to TCDD (and other related environmental stimuli) is substantially more complex than we previously realized.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

Supplemental Content

Full text links

Icon for Elsevier Science
Loading ...
Support Center