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J Am Chem Soc. 2001 Aug 8;123(31):7584-93.

Ligand-stabilized ruthenium nanoparticles: synthesis, organization, and dynamics.

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  • 1Laboratoire de Chimie de Coordination du CNRS, 205, route de Narbonne, 31077 Toulouse CĂ©dex 04, France.


The decomposition of the ruthenium precursor Ru(COD)(COT) (1, COD = 1,5-cyclooctadiene; COT = 1,3,5-cyclooctatriene) in mild conditions (room temperature, 1--3 bar H(2)) in THF leads, in the presence of a stabilizer (polymer or ligand), to nanoparticles of various sizes and shapes. In THF and in the presence of a polymer matrix (Ru/polymer = 5%), crystalline hcp particles of uniform mean size (1.1 nm) homogeneously dispersed in the polymer matrix and agglomerated hcp particles (1.7 nm) were respectively obtained in poly(vinylpyrrolidone) and cellulose acetate. The same reaction, carried out using various concentrations relative to ruthenium of alkylamines or alkylthiols as stabilizers (L = C(8)H(17)NH(2), C(12)H(25)NH(2), C(16)H(33)NH(2), C(8)H(17)SH, C(12)H(25)SH, or C(16)H(33)SH), leads to agglomerated particles (L = thiol) or particles dispersed in the solution (L = amine), both displaying a mean size near 2--3 nm and an hcp structure. In the case of amine ligands, the particles are generally elongated and display a tendency to form worm- or rodlike structures at high amine concentration. This phenomenon is attributed to a rapid amine ligand exchange at the surface of the particle as observed by (13)C NMR. In contrast, the particles stabilized by C(8)H(17)SH are not fluxional, but a catalytic transformation of thiols into disulfides has been observed which involves oxidative addition of thiols on the ruthenium surface. All colloids were characterized by microanalysis, infrared spectroscopy after CO adsorption, high-resolution electron microscopy, and wide-angle X-ray scattering.

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