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Oncogene. 2001 Jul 19;20(32):4305-16.

The adenine nucleotide translocator: a target of nitric oxide, peroxynitrite, and 4-hydroxynonenal.

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Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR1599, Institut Gustave Roussy, 39 rue Camille-Desmoulins, F-94805 Villejuif, France.


Nitric oxide (NO), peroxynitrite, and 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE) may be involved in the pathological demise of cells via apoptosis. Apoptosis induced by these agents is inhibited by Bcl-2, suggesting the involvement of mitochondria in the death pathway. In vitro, NO, peroxynitrite and HNE can cause direct permeabilization of mitochondrial membranes, and this effect is inhibited by cyclosporin A, indicating involvement of the permeability transition pore complex (PTPC) in the permeabilization event. NO, peroxynitrite and HNE also permeabilize proteoliposomes containing the adenine nucleotide translocator (ANT), one of the key components of the PTPC, yet have no or little effects on protein-free control liposomes. ANT-dependent, NO-, peroxynitrite- or HNE-induced permeabilization is at least partially inhibited by recombinant Bcl-2 protein, as well as the antioxidants trolox and butylated hydroxytoluene. In vitro, none of the tested agents (NO, peroxynitrite, HNE, and tert-butylhydroperoxide) causes preferential carbonylation HNE adduction, or nitrotyrosylation of ANT. However, all these agents induced ANT to undergo thiol oxidation/derivatization. Peroxynitrite and HNE also caused significant lipid peroxidation, which was antagonized by butylated hydroxytoluene but not by recombinant Bcl-2. Transfection-enforced expression of vMIA, a viral apoptosis inhibitor specifically targeted to ANT, largely reduces the mitochondrial and nuclear signs of apoptosis induced by NO, peroxynitrite and HNE in intact cells. Taken together these data suggest that NO, peroxynitrite, and HNE may directly act on ANT to induce mitochondrial membrane permeabilization and apoptosis.

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