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Am J Manag Care. 2001 Jul;7(7):685-93.

Promoting smoking abstinence in pregnant and postpartum patients: a comparison of 2 approaches.

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Division of Epidemiology, University of Minnesota, 1300 South Second Street, Suite 300, Minneapolis, MN 55454-1015, USA.



To compare the implementation, delivery, and implications for dissemination of 2 different maternal smoking-cessation/relapse-prevention interventions in managed care environments.


Healthy Options for Pregnancy and Parenting (HOPP) was a randomized, controlled efficacy trial of an intervention that bypassed the clinical setting. Stop Tobacco for OuR Kids (STORK) was a quasi-experimental effectiveness study of a point-of-service intervention. Both incorporated prenatal and postnatal components.


Subjects in both studies were pregnant women who either smoked currently or had quit recently. The major intervention in HOPP was telephone counseling delivered by trained counselors, whereas the STORK intervention was delivered by providers and staff during prepartum, inpatient postpartum, and well-baby visits.


In HOPP, 97% of telephone intervention participants reported receiving 1 or more counselor calls. The intervention delayed but did not prevent postpartum relapse to smoking. Problems with intervention delivery related primarily to identification of the target population and acceptance of repeated calls. STORK delivered 1 or more cessation contacts to 91% of prenatal smokers in year 1, but the rate of intervention delivery declined in years 2 and 3. Modest differences were obtained in sustained abstinence between 6 and 12 months postpartum, but not in point prevalence abstinence at 12 months.


The projects were compared using 4 of the 5 dimensions of the RE-AIM model including reach, adoption, implementation, and maintenance. It was difficult to apply the fifth dimension, efficacy, because of the differences in study design and purpose of the interventions. The strengths and limitations of each project were identified, and it was concluded that a combined intervention that incorporates elements of both HOPP and STORK would be optimal if it could be implemented at reasonable cost.

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