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Mol Endocrinol. 2001 Aug;15(8):1329-43.

Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat binding protein-1 is a transcriptional coactivator specific for TR.

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First Department of Internal Medicine, Gunma University School of Medicine 3-39-15, Maebashi 371-8511, Japan.


The DNA-binding domain of nuclear hormone receptors functions as an interaction interface for other transcription factors. Using the DNA-binding domain of TRbeta1 as bait in the yeast two-hybrid system, we cloned the Tat binding protein-1 that was originally isolated as a protein binding to the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Tat transactivator. Tat binding protein-1 has subsequently been identified as a member of the ATPase family and a component of the 26S proteasome. Tat binding protein-1 interacted with the DNA-binding domain but not with the ligand binding domain of TR in vivo and in vitro. TR bound to the amino-terminal portion of Tat binding protein-1 that contains a leucine zipper-like structure. In mammalian cells, Tat binding protein-1 potentiated the ligand-dependent transactivation by TRbeta1 and TRalpha1 via thyroid hormone response elements. Both the intact DNA-binding domain and activation function-2 of the TR were required for the transcriptional enhancement in the presence of Tat binding protein-1. Tat binding protein-1 did not augment the transactivation function of the RAR, RXR, PPARgamma, or ER. The intrinsic activation domain in Tat binding protein-1 resided within the carboxyl-terminal conserved ATPase domain, and a mutation of a putative ATP binding motif but not a helicase motif in the carboxyl-terminal conserved ATPase domain abolished the activation function. Tat binding protein-1 synergistically activated the TR-mediated transcription with the steroid receptor coactivator 1, p120, and cAMP response element-binding protein, although Tat binding protein-1 did not directly interact with these coactivators in vitro. In contrast, the N-terminal portion of Tat binding protein-1 directly interacted in vitro and in vivo with the TR-interacting protein 1 possessing an ATPase activity that interacts with the activation function-2 of liganded TR. Collectively, Tat binding protein-1 might function as a novel DNA-binding domain-binding transcriptional coactivator specific for the TR probably in cooperation with other activation function-2-interacting cofactors such as TR-interacting protein 1.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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