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Epilepsy Res. 2001 Aug;46(2):169-78.

The insular but not the perirhinal cortex is involved in the expression of fully-kindled amygdaloid seizures in rats.

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  • 1Department of Neuropsychiatry, Okayama University Medical School, 2-5-1 Shikata-cho, Okayama-city, 700-8558, Okayama, Japan.


We have previously reported an important excitatory role of the perirhinal cortex (PRC) in rat kindling development using an immunohistochemistry technique. In this study, we investigated the roles of the PRC and the insular cortex (INS) located rostral to the PRC, in fully-kindled amygdaloid seizures, using a microinjection technique in the rat kindling model of epilepsy. Following the establishment of daily kindling, we investigated the effects of microinjections of procaine hydrochloride, 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate (APV; an N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist) and 2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoyl-benzo(f)-quinoxaline (NBQX; an alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) receptor antagonist). Microinjections of these drugs into the ipsilateral PRC did not suppress kindled seizures. The possibility is that the process of kindling development forms novel seizure-generalization pathways that do not require further activation of the PRC. On the other hand, procaine and APV injected into the ipsilateral INS significantly suppressed kindled seizures. The manner of suppression appeared to be 'all or none'. It is therefore possible that at least the activation of NMDA receptors in the INS is necessary to express generalized kindled amygdaloid seizures.

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