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J Virol. 2001 Aug;75(16):7543-54.

Reactivation of latent human cytomegalovirus in CD14(+) monocytes is differentiation dependent.

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1
Oregon Health Sciences University, Portland, Oregon 97201, USA. cecilia.siderberg-naucler@cbt.ki.se

Abstract

We have previously demonstrated reactivation of latent human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in myeloid lineage cells obtained from healthy donors. Virus was obtained from allogenically stimulated monocyte-derived macrophages (Allo-MDM), but not from macrophages differentiated by mitogenic stimulation (ConA-MDM). In the present study, the cellular and cytokine components essential for HCMV replication and reactivation were examined in Allo-MDM. The importance of both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in the generation of HCMV-permissive Allo-MDM was demonstrated by negative selection or blocking experiments using antibodies directed against both HLA class I and HLA class II molecules. Interestingly, contact of monocytes with CD4 or CD8 T cells was not essential for reactivation of HCMV, since virus was observed in macrophages derived from CD14(+) monocytes stimulated by supernatants produced by allogeneic stimulation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Examination of the cytokines produced in Allo-MDM and ConA-MDM cultures indicated a significant difference in the kinetics of production and quantity of these factors. Further examination of the cytokines essential for the generation of HCMV-permissive Allo-MDM identified gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) but not interleukin-1 or -2, tumor necrosis factor alpha, or granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor as critical components in the generation of these macrophages. In addition, although IFN-gamma was crucial for reactivation of latent HCMV, addition of IFN-gamma to unstimulated macrophage cultures was insufficient to reactivate virus. Thus, this study characterizes two distinct monocyte-derived cell types which can be distinguished by their ability to reactivate and support HCMV replication and identifies the critical importance of IFN-gamma in the reactivation of HCMV.

PMID:
11462026
PMCID:
PMC114989
DOI:
10.1128/JVI.75.16.7543-7554.2001
[Indexed for MEDLINE]
Free PMC Article
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