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Facial Plast Surg Clin North Am. 2001 May;9(2):179-87, vii.

Anatomy and pathophysiology of facial aging.

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Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Division of Facial Plastic Surgery, Beth Israel Medical Center, New York, New York 10003, USA.


The major forces responsible for facial aging include gravity, soft tissue maturation, skeletal remodeling, muscular facial activity, and solar changes. This article discusses the anatomy and pathophysiology of facial aging by defining the affects of the aging process on the skeletal structure, skin, and musculature. How these changes affect the upper, mid, and lower thirds of the aging face is then examined.

[Indexed for MEDLINE]

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