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Pest Manag Sci. 2001 Feb;57(2):153-64.

The discovery of indoxacarb: oxadiazines as a new class of pyrazoline-type insecticides.

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DuPont Crop Protection Products, Stine-Haskell Research Center, PO Box 30, Newark, DE 19714, USA.


The evolution of the insecticidal pyrazoline moiety that was originally discovered in 1972 has led to the discovery of a new crop insecticide, indoxacarb, which is the first commercialized pyrazoline-type sodium-channel blocker. Both monocyclic and fused-tricyclic pyrazolines and pyridazines, as well as structurally related semicarbazones were examined prior to the discovery of analogous tricyclic oxadiazines which had similarly high activity as well as favorable environmental dissipation rates and low toxicity to non-target organisms. The eventual leading candidate, DPX-JW062, was originally obtained as a racemic molecule, but a chiral synthesis was developed which produces material that is 50% ee in the insecticidal (+)-S-enantiomer (DPX-MP062, indoxacarb).

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